In deliberate practice, learners and teachers periodically stop and assess their experiences and circumstances in order to make a plan to improve. The first two components - stopping and assessing - constitute reflective practice. Reflective practice, in turn, falls into three equally important domains. The first domain is cognitive awareness: awareness of what you know and don't know. The second domain is procedural: what kind of technical skills do you have or do you need and what can you or can't you do. The final domain is affective: how do interactions with patients or colleagues, or your work life in general, influence emotions, and what impact does that have on patient care and your own quality of life as a physician.
Through reflection a person is able to see and label forms of thought and theory within the context of his or her work. A person who reflects throughout his or her practice is not just looking back on past actions and events, but is taking a conscious look at emotions, experiences, actions, and responses, and using that information to add to his or her existing knowledge base and reach a higher level of understanding.
Reflective practice, the framing and evaluation of a design challenge by working it through, rather than just thinking it through, points out that physical action and cognition are interconnected. Successful product designs result from a series of "conversations with materials." Here, the "conversations" are interactions between the designer and the design medium - sketching on paper, shaping clay, building with foam core (...). The epistemic production of concrete prototypes provides the crucial element of surprise, unexpected realizations that the designer could not have arrived at without producing a concrete manifestation of her ideas.
Our own fieldwork with design professionals underscores the centrality of thinking through prototyping. One architect estimated the number of tangible prototypes made for a building to be between 200 and 300 in his own practice. A design director stressed the importance of generating a wide range of different tangible and virtual prototypes. Because different styles and fidelities of artifacts yield different perspectives, externalizing ideas through a variety of prototypes affords a richer understanding of a design.
— How Bodies Matter: Five Themes for Interaction Design - Scott Klemmer, et al.